Natural History: An erect annual herb found in the oriental region (Flowers of India, 2022). Purple flowers arise in axillary clusters from August to October (WFO, 2022).
Notes: This plant has been recorded as a new larval host for Junonia almana – Peacock Pansy by Sarvadaman Shankarrao Kulkarni from Sangli, Maharashtra in 2019.
Nitin, R., V. C. Balakrishnan, P. V. Churi, S. Kalesh, S. Prakash, and K. Kunte. 2018. Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10:11495–11550. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3184.108.40.20695-11550.
WFO (2022): World Flora Online. Accessed on 19 Dec 2022. URL: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001041390.
Flowers of India (2022). Accessed on 19 Dec 2022. URL: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Erect%20Hygrophila.html.
Kulkarni, S. S. and N. Kawthankar. 2023. Hygrophila ringens (L.) R.Br. ex Spreng. – Erect Hygrophila. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 4.12. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/hygrophila-ringens, accessed 2023/12/01.