Note: Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou is now considered endemic to south India, and have relatively small leaves with acute apex.
WFO (2023): World Flora Online. Accessed on 01 Jan 2023. URL: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000713049.
Flowers of India (2023). Accessed on 01 Jan 2023. URL: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Red%20Spike%20Thorn.html.
Churi, P. and N. Kawthankar 2023. Gymnosporia senegalensis Loes. – Red Spike-thorn. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 4.12. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/gymnosporia-senegalensis, accessed 2023/03/22.