Subspecies in India
Hu et al. (2018) revised the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) group of which two subspecies are found in India Graphium mandarinus paphus (de Nicéville, 1886) and Graphium mandarinus garhwalica (Katayama, 1988). Based on molecular and morphological analysis, Hu et al. (2018) raised paphus and garhwalica to species status.
Graphium paphus (de Nicéville, 1886) and Graphium garhwalica (Katayama, 1988) show very minor differences based on external morphology and can be separated as under:
G. garhwalica (FWL 32-33 mm) is smaller in size compared to G. paphus (FWL 35-41 mm).
G. garhwalica has FW termen straight, while in G. paphus, the FW termen is concave in the middle and slightly wavy and the end of each vein.In G. garhwalica, the origin of v.2 at FW cell has no black scales and is white, while in G. paphus, the origin of v.2 at FW cell is black, forming a black line. The black discal line mid-cell on UPH is reduced in G. garhwalica while it is prominent and black in G. paphus.
Conservation and Special status
This species is not legally protected in India under any schedules of WildLife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Photo Gallery and Species Biology
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli|
|Daman & Diu|
|Jammu and Kashmir UT|
Hu, S.J., Cotton, A.M., Condamine, F.L., Duan, K., Wang, R.J., Hsu, Y.F., Zhang, X. and Cao, J., 2018. Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) group, with treatments of known taxa and descriptions of new species and new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa, 4441(3), pp.401-446.
Anonymous 2022. Graphium paphus (de Nicéville, 1886) – (Spectacle) Swordtail. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 3.06. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/graphium-paphus, accessed 2022/10/02.