Subspecies in India
(2) Graphium antiphates nebulosus (Butler, 1881) – Himalayan Five-bar Swordtail
Various names have been applied to the Indian subspecies of Graphium antiphates (Cramer, ) in the past. The Western Ghats populations have been referred to by some as Graphium antiphates alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787), and the Himalayan populations have been referred to by the name Graphium antiphates pompilius (Fabricius, 1787). Based on historical records of butterfly trade in China and India and by comparing syntypes of pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) with specimens from mainland Asia, Cotton et al. (2019) suggested that alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787) should represent populations in the Malay Peninsula, and that pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) is a synonym of antiphates (Cramer, ). They also suggested that the correct and valid name of the Western Ghats subspecies is naira (Moore, ) and that of the Himalayan and NE Indian subspecies is nebulosus (Butler, 1881). We have always used the name naira (Moore, ) for the Western Ghats, and the change from pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) to nebulosus (Butler, 1881) has also been implemented on image text.
Conservation and Special status
This species is not legally protected in India under any schedules of WildLife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Photo Gallery and Species Biology
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli UT|
|Daman & Diu UT|
|Jammu and Kashmir UT|
Desmos chinensis, Miliusa (Annonaceae), Magnolia doltsopa (Magnoliaceae).
Key Reference: Nitin, R., V. C. Balakrishnan, P. V. Churi, S. Kalesh, S. Prakash, and K. Kunte. 2018. Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10:11495–11550.
For the complete list of larval host plants of Indian butterflies, see the page on larval host plants.
Mazumder, S., and K. Kunte 2023. Graphium antiphates (Cramer, ) – Five-bar Swordtail. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 4.12. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/graphium-antiphates, accessed 2023/03/21.