Natural History: A mangrove associate shrub growing along the edges of creek and mangrove forest. Its native range is from India to Australia and Pacific Islands (POWO, 2022). Its name refers to its Holly tree-like leaves. The violet flowers are clustered on the terminal spikes. Flowering season is from December to May (Flowers of India, 2022).
WFO (2022): World Flora Online. Accessed on 17 Dec 2022. URL: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000513844.
Flowers of India (2022). Accessed on 17 Dec 2022. URL: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Sea%20Holly.html.
POWO (2022): Plants of the World Online. Accessed on 17 Dec 2022. URL: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/44873-1.
Kawthankar, N. 2023. Acanthus ilicifolius L. – Holly Mangrove. In Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 4.12. Published by the Indian Foundation for Butterflies. URL: https://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/acanthus-ilicifolius, accessed 2023/12/01.