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Lepidoptera > Papilionoidea > Papilionidae > Papilioninae > Leptocircini > Graphium

Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) – Five-bar Swordtail

Subspecies in India:

(1) Graphium antiphates naira (Moore, [1903]) – Sahyadri Five-bar Swordtail
(2) Graphium antiphates nebulosus (Butler, 1881) – Himalayan Five-bar Swordtail

Various names have been applied to the Indian subspecies of Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) in the past. The Western Ghats populations have been referred to by some as Graphium antiphates alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787), and the Himalayan populations have been referred to by the name Graphium antiphates pompilius (Fabricius, 1787). Based on historical records of butterfly trade in China and India and by comparing syntypes of pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) with specimens from mainland Asia, Cotton et al. (2019) suggested that alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787) should represent populations in the Malay Peninsula, and that pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) is a synonym of antiphates (Cramer, [1775]). They also suggested that the correct and valid name of the Western Ghats subspecies is naira (Moore, [1903]) and that of the Himalayan and NE Indian subspecies is nebulosus (Butler, 1881). We have always used the name naira (Moore, [1903]) for the Western Ghats, and the change from pompilius (Fabricius, 1787) to nebulosus (Butler, 1881) will be implemented on image text in the near future.

Early Stages:
Indian and global distribution:
records (based on images):
Larval Host Plants:
Graphium antiphates naira - Desmos chinensis (Robinson et al. 2010), Miliusa (Wynter-Blyth 1957; Kunte 2000) (Annonaceae). Magnolia doltsopa (Wynter-Blyth 1957; Kunte 2000) (Magnoliaceae). An alternative name, Graphium antiphates alcibiades (Fabricius, 1787), is often used for the Western Ghats populations, which was raised due to confusion regarding the type locality.

Key Reference:
Nitin, R., V. C. Balakrishnan, P. V. Churi, S. Kalesh, S. Prakash, and K. Kunte. 2018. Larval host plants of the butterflies of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 10:11495–11550.

For the complete list of larval host plants of Indian butterflies, see the page on larval host plants.

Sexual, seasonal & individual variation:
Status, Habitat and Habits:
Cotton, A. M., J. Robinson, and Y. Inayoshi. 2019. Taxonomic implications resulting from examination of the syntypes of Papilio pompilius Fabricius, 1787 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Butterflies (Teinopalpus), 81:48–55.

Lepidoptera > Papilionoidea > Papilionidae > Papilioninae > Leptocircini > Graphium

Cite this page along with its URL as:
Mazumder, S., and K. Kunte. 2021. Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) – Five-bar Swordtail. Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, and P. Roy (Chief Editors). Butterflies of India, v. 3.17. Indian Foundation for Butterflies.
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